An Integral field spectrograph is a spectrograph equipped with an integral field unit (IFU). In this method,
the light from each pixel of the detector is fed into a spectrograph, which generates a spectrum for each individual pixel. This muliplexing
capability allows one to obtain spectra of every single pixel of an image simultaneously. This is a game changer in terms of how astropysical observations are carried out.
Please look here for a nice description of how IFUs work.
In recent years, several integral field spectrographs which cover large fields of view have come online (e.g. VLT/MUSE, Keck/KCWI) and several (Llama/Magellan) are coming online in the near future.
I am heavily involved with IFU observations and software development to get the best out of these amazing instruments.
I am leading several efforts to use these IFUs and study the gas flow around galaxies in 3D.
See some of our new results:
Resolving the H I in damped Lyman α systems that power star formation, Bordoloi R. et al. 2022, Nature, https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-022-04616-1.
A 30 kpc Spatially Extended Clumpy and Asymmetric Galactic Outflow at z ∼ 1.7, Shaban A. et al. 2022, ApJ, 936, 1.